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Infrared Spectroscopy:

Discusses selectivity of Nafion™ dryers, with table of compounds

Measuring Trace Impurities in Air by Infrared Spectroscopy at 20 Meters Path and 10 Atmospheres Pressure; D. Baker, Jr., DuPont Experimental Station, American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 835 (Nov. 1974)

Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy:

Discusses drying prior to cryogenic pre-concentration for GC

Measuring VOCs for the Study of Atmospheric Processes; H.J.Th. Bloemen Et al, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, International Laboratory (Sept. 1990)

Discusses drying prior to cryogenic pre-concentration for GC

Enhanced Performance of Nafion™ Dryers in Removing Water From Air Samples Prior to Gas Chromatographic Analysis; W. McClenny et al, U.S. EPA, JAPCA 37: 244 (1987).

Discusses drying prior to cryogenic pre-concentration for GC

Selective Water Removal in Purge/GC Analysis of Volatile Aromatics in Aqueous Samples; J. Cochran, Northrop Services, Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 10:573 (1987).

Discusses drying prior to cryogenic pre-concentration for GC

A Rapid, Selective Method for the Analysis of Halogenated Gases in Water; J. Cochran, Northrop Services, Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 11: 663 (1988).

Discusses drying prior to cryogenic pre-concentration for GC

Determination of Trace Level Organics in Ambient Air by High-Resolution Gas Chromatography with Simultaneous Photoionization and Flame Ionization Detection; R, Cox & R. Earp, Radian Corp., Anal. Chem. 54: 2265 (1982).

Discusses drying prior to cryogenic pre-concentration for GC

Automatic Gas Chromatographic Monitor for the Determination of Parts-per-Billion Levels of Bis(chloromethyl)Ether; L. Frankel & R. Black, Rohm and Haas Co., Anal. Chem. 48: 732 (1976). 

Discusses direct injection of liquid water samples, then drying

An Alternative Method for Gas Chromatographic Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Water; R. Coutant & G. Keigley, Battelle Memorial Institute, Anal. Chem. 60: 2536 (1988).

Discusses pre-drying prior to cryogenic drying for GC/MS

Determination of Part-per Trillion Levels of Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide by Isotope Dilution Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry; A. Bandy et al, Drexel University, Anal. Chem. 59: 1196 (1987).

Discusses cooling dryer to reach extremely low dew points

Efficiency and Temperature Dependence of Water Removal by Membrane Dryers; K. Leckrone & J. Hayes, Indiana University, Anal. Chem. 69: No. 5, 911 (March, 1997). 

Discusses drying gases without loss of chlorine or hydrogen chloride

Developments in Abatement Tool Characterization: Continuous, In-Line RGA Analysis of Chlorinated Gases in Moisture Saturated Conditions; J. Arno, ATMI-Eco-Sys Corp., Semiconductor Fabtech (1997).

Discusses drying gases without loss of semiconductor acid gases

In-Line Analysis of Acid Gases in Water Vapor Saturated Environments; J. Arno, ATMI-EcoSys Corp, Presentation at SEMICON Southwest97 (October, 1997).

Continuous Emissions Monitoring:

Discusses sample conditioning systems for CEMS

Design and Operation of a Sampling Interface for Continuous Source Monitors; A. Wyss & B. Stroud, ITT Inc., Presentation at 70th Annual Meeting of Air Pollution Control Association (June 1977).

Discusses dryer performance with sulfur compound in stack gas

Evaluation of the Perma Pure Dryer for Drying Stack Gases; F. Cassidy, Exxon Research and Engineering Co., AID (Aug. 1974).

Compares Nafion™ dryer to desiccant dryers for CO, CO2, and H2

Testing of a New Dryer for Top Gas Analysis; M. Bayewitz et al, Bethlehem Steel, Evaluation Report #1004-16 (Aug. 1974).

Discusses drying gases without loss of small particles
(PM10, PM 2.5)

Development of a Real-Time Monitor for Volatile Fine Particulate Matter; F. Obeidi & D. Eatough, Brigham Young University, Presentation at Air & Waste Management Association 90th Annual Meeting (June 1997).

Discusses drying air samples without loss of particulates

Integrated and Real-time Diffusion Denuder Samplers for PM2.5, Based on BOSS, PC and TEOM technology; D. Eatough, F. Obeidi, Y. Pang and Y. Ding, Bringham Young University, N. Eatough, California Polytechnic State University, and W. Wilson, US Environmental Protection Agency, Atmos, Environ. (Draft, October, 1997

Discusses drying air samples without loss of particulates

Characterization of 0.02µm to 1.0µm Particle Losses in Perma Pure Dryers: Dependence on Size, Charge, and Relative Humidity; W. Dick, P. Huang, and P. McMurry, University of Minnesota, Particle Technology Laboratory N. 936 (February, 1995).

Discusses problems in monitoring low SO2 and NOx levels

RECLAIM Drives Analytical Monitoring Upgrades; D. Podkulski and R. Junge, Chevron Products Company, InTech (August 1997)

Discusses problems in monitoring low NOx levels

Low NOx Measurement: Gas Turbine Plants: Final Report on Review of Current Measuring and Monitoring Practices; Vaught Engineering Inc., Scottsdale, AZ (January 1999).

Discusses gas appliance sampling

Guidelines for Measuring Emissions from Vented Gas Appliances, Vol. 1: Sampling and Analysis Fundamentals; R.E. Barrett, Battelle, Columbus, OH (August 1993)

Discusses measuring on-road emissions at ULEV levels and below

Development of an On-Board Analyzer for use on Advanced Low Emission Vehicles; J. Jetter, Shinji Maeshiro, Honda R&D Americas, Inc, S. Hatcho, Honda R&D Co Ltd, R Klebba Nicolet Instrument Corp, Society of Automotive Engineers, Emission Measurement and Testing (March, 2000)

Other:

Discusses sample preconcentration for AA

Flow Injection Donnan Dialysis Preconcentration of Cations for Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry; J. Koropchak & L. Allen, Southern Illinois University, (March 1989).

Discusses sample preconcentration for ICP

Flow Injection Donnan Dialysis Preconcentration of Trace Metal Cations for Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry; J. Koropchak et al, Southern Illinois University, Anal. Chem. 65: 859 (1993).

Discusses drying volatile metal hydrides and mercury vapor for AA

The Use of Nafion™ Dryer Tubes for Moisture Removal in Flow Injection Chemical Vapor Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; J. Tyson et al, University of Massachusetts, Spectrochimica Acta Part B.

Discusses concentrating liquid reagent during addition

Flow Injection Reagent Introduction by Supported Liquid and Nafion™ Membranes: Determination of Phosphate; J. Tyson et al, University of Massachusetts, Talanta 41: 1797 (1994).

Discusses counter-ion substitution to suppress interferences

Elimination of Matrix Interferences in Ion Chromatographic Analysis of Difficult Aqueous Samples; W. Jones & P. Jandik, Waters Div. of Millipore, Journal of Chromatographic Science 27: 449 (1989).

Discusses drying aerosol sample prior to introduction into ICP

Use of a multi-tube Nafion™ membrane dryer for desolvation with thermospray sample introduction to inductively coupled plasma- atomic emission spectrometry; Jinfu Yang, Timothy S. Conver, John A. Koropchak, David A. Leighty, Spectrochimica Acta Part B 51 1491-1503 (1996).

Discusses drying mercury vapor for AFS

Considerations for a Reduced-Level Mercury Laboratory and Determination of Ultratrace Level Total Mercury in Water by Atomic Fluorescence Detection: Part I; J. Scifres, M. Wasko, & W. McDaniel, U.S. EPA, American Laboratory 34 (May 1995).

Discusses drying aerosol sample prior to introduction into ICP-MS

Reduction of Water Loading Effects in Inductively Coupled Plasma, Mass Spectrometry by a Nafion™ Membrane Dryer Device; Neil Fitzgerald, Julian F. Tyson, and David A. Leighty, University of Massachusetts, Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 13:13 (January 1998).

Discusses drying aerosol sample prior to introduction into ICP

Elimination of Nitric Acid Interference in CP-AES by Using a Cyclonic Spray Chamber/Nafion™ Membrane- based Desolvation System; Antonio Canals, Luis Gras, and Humberto Contreras, University of Alicante, Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 17, 219-226 (2002)